Introduction the energy from the sun is vast, while being commonly available at any point of use. The acceptance angle of the reflector determines the amount of sunlight that will enter and get reflected to the receiver placed at its focus. Pdf performance of compound parabolic concentrators with. Many people in less developed countries drink water with microbial contamination, which leads to the annual death of 5 million children. A compound parabolic concentrator cpc is a reflective, nonimaging optical device which employs specifically configured parabolic properties to take advantage of the maximum concentration of light energy. Compound parabolic concentrator for pentagon shape absorber. The nonimaging concentrator uses a compound parabolic concentrator cpc reflector to capture the incident sun rays. Design, optimization and characterization of the light of the. Construction and performance analysis of a three dimensional. The basic concept of the compound parabolic concentrator is shown in fig. A manual solar tracking was facilitated along the two axes up to. Heat removal factor, js, for solar collectors under any opera tion mode is. Densearray concentrator photovoltaic system using nonimaging dish concentrator and crossed compound parabolic concentrator conference paper pdf available november 2014 with 280 reads. The compound parabolic concentrator cpc is a versatile solar collector due to the amount of applications and geometries that can be used 2, it is an excellent candidate for thermal energy supply of industrial processes 3 particularly for low and medium temperature ranges 4.
Design optimisation of compound parabolic concentrator cpc. Cpc consist of two parabolic reflectors at the two ends left and right of the absorber plate and hence it is known as compound parabolic concentrator. A thermaloptical analysis of a compound parabolic concentrator for. Pdf compound parabolic concentrators for solar water. In the drawing opposite there are two parabolic mirrors cc red and dd blue. Parabolic solar concentrators with evacuated tube as receivers. Pdf experimental investigation of the comparison of. Development of a compound parabolic solar concentrator to. Introduction compound parabolic concentrators cpcs are advanced technological solutions developed for making. If analytical expression between r and x is found to be cumbersome, an analogue technique of directly measuring r by means of a string or by other method may be adopted after drawing desired parabola or compound curve to full scale on the floor or wooden board.
Mech ijmperd thermal analysis of compound parabolic. The collector concept was originated by winston in 1978. Compound parabolic concentrators cpcs edmund optics. A compound parabolic concentrator cpc is a well known non imaging concentrator. Solar concentrator, compound parabolic concentrator, sanitization, sterilization, cpc, nonimaging concentrators, parabolic concentrators, waste drying 1. Thermodynamics and the segmented compound parabolic concentrator journal of photonics for energy 0280026 apr jun 2017 vol. The formalism for designing a wide variety of concentrator types, such as the compound parabolic concentrator and its many embodiments and variations, is presented. The u and v axes are the coordinate system of the rightside parabola. Ray tracing for optimization of compound parabolic. Two configurations are numerically studied namely one with simple typical flat pv string and the other pv string with cpc. The sunlight which enters the mirror parallel to its plane of symmetry is focused along the focal line, where objects are positioned that are intended to be heated. Us4387961a compound parabolic concentrator with cavity.
Performance evaluation of photovoltaic string with compound. We propose some new concentrators, including the use of compound parabolic concentrators as second stage concentrators for conventional parabolic or fresnel mirrors. Performance and cost benefits associated with nonimaging nrel. In this approach, the primary collector consists of a prism, a solid compound parabolic concentrator cpc, and a slab waveguide. By using multiple internal reflections, any radiation entering the aperture within the collector acceptance angle finds its way to the absorber surface located at the bottom of the collector.
External compound parabolic concentrator, xcpc, medium temperature. Two small pv modules with 6 silicon solar cells, and two parallel strings with three solar cells in series were constructed with and without acpc. Truncation equations are given, and advantages of this. Optical reflectors made of nickel high heat tolerance, resistance to extreme corrosion low scatter stock products, semicustom, and full custom. Because ccpc is created by combining two 2d cpc, ccpc performs.
Electroformed components precision metal components electroforming is a costeffective additive manufacturing am process that accurately replicates geometric and organic surfaces using copper andor nickel in an electrodeposition process. Renewable energy, solar heat collector, ray tracing, compound parabolic concentrator 1. Nonimaging optical gain in luminescent concentration. Pdf analysis of a new compound parabolic concentratorbased. Secondary concentration compensated for any slight inaccuracies in mirror facet mounting that would lead to broadening or inaccurate focus of the beam at the focal line. Nonimaging optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such, depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. A compound parabolic concentrator cpc for solar energy applications is presented in this work. Flat plate collectors have been widely used for applications that demand temperature below 90. Sixparameter electrical model for photovoltaic cell. Pdf optical design of two dimension compound parabolic.
Compound parabolic concentrators are critical components in solar energy collection, wireless communication, biomedical and defense research, or for any. This book is organized into 11 chapters that emphasize the application of nonimaging optics to concentrators for solar energy. Question asked by mazin shidhani on mar 21, 2017 latest reply on jul 7. This theorem give a suff icient condition to have ete ndue limited collimation between a source and a target with the same etendue.
Compound parabolic concentrator cpc, an ideal solar concentrator designed based on principles of edgeray and identical optical length, shares the advantages of being simple in structure and no need for a continuous suntracking system. A fourwing compound parabolic concentrator cpc was designed as a modification of the regular nonimaging cpc concentrator that has a widespread use as solar collector. Compound parabolic concentrators are critical components in solar energy collection, wireless communication, biomedical and defense research, or for any applications requiring condensing of a divergent light source. Design of a parabolic trough solar collector using a. Building integrated compound parabolic photovoltaic. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of cpc, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic. A compound parabolic concentrator with a vshaped cavity is provided in which an optical receiver is emplaced. This paper covers an experimental study on a compound parabolic concentrator tubular so. Design and fabrication of a dielectric total internal. The basic geometrical parameters of the cpc including the acceptance angle and the entry aperture radius are determined using optical simulations.
A computational study of a photovoltaic compound parabolic. In 1974 when the suitability of the compound parabolic concentrator cpc. From its inception nearly 30 years ago, the optical subdiscipline now referred to as nonimaging optics, has experienced dramatic growth. Such a combination approaches the performance of an. These topics are followed by a description of the socalled compound parabolic concentrator. Find compound parabolic concentrator related suppliers, manufacturers, products and specifications on globalspec a trusted source of compound parabolic concentrator information. However, a lumped electrical model of a pv cellmodule with cpc for. For solar tracking applications, cpcs offer the possibility of high solar concentration ratios, in. The top of each parabolic section is perpendicular to the base on the x axis.
A 3d cpc was fabricated with a half acceptance angle of 4 for a spherical absorber radius 100 mm. The clear day solar beam radiation and diffuse radiation at the location of the solar collector are estimated. A lot of work has been done in the field of compound parabolic concentrator by rabl and kreith. Compound parabolic concentrators cpcs are designed to efficiently collect and concentrate distant light sources, with some acceptance angle. This reflector configuration is a compound parabolic concentrator cpc. Experimental study on a compound parabolic concentrator tubular solar still tied with pyramid solar still t. The entire collector is formed by combining three xcpcs on either side of.
Most of the parabolic concentrator employs only a truncated portion of the parabola. Design of a compound parabolic concentrator for a multi. The diagram is linked to a pdf of these diagrams with t ranging from 10 to 50. A concentrator photovoltaic system based on a combination. Pdf doublepass photovoltaicthermal solar air collector. Doublepass photovoltaicthermal solar air collector with compound parabolic concentrator and fins. The multiobjective optimum design of stationary compound parabolic concentrator cpc solar collectors is considered. Isuzu glass has announced that it has successfully produced cpcs using a glass mold. Although some people currently boil water, all microbes that cause disease in humans do not survive at. In this paper, the flux distribution of untruncated and truncated 2d hollow.
Solar concentrators rensselaer polytechnic institute. Harnessing the freely available source of energy from the sun offers a number of additional benefits. For a 3dimensional nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator, the maximum concentration possible in air or in vacuum equal to the ratio of input and output aperture areas, is. In recent years, cpcbased solar collectors are commonly regarded. The necessity of moving the concentrator to accommodate the changing solar orientation can be reduced by using a trough with two sections of a. Not least of these benefits is the fact that solar energy is an environmentally sustainable alternative. Oct 12, 2007 previously, polish processing was the only way possible to manufacture compound parabolic concentrators cpc. Nonimaging optics in solar energy synthesis lectures on. Abstracta compound parabolic concentrator cpc is a well known nonimaging concentrator that will concentrate the solar radiation onto receiver pv cell. They have the capability of reflecting to the absorber all of the incident radiation within wide limits. Combining the correction factors a3 and a4 we obtain the. A fourwing compound parabolic concentrator cpc design.
The idea of concentrating solar thermal energy is an area that has received significant attention in recent years. Experimental study on a compound parabolic concentrator. Compound parabolic concentrators cpcs are concentrator lenses made from rotated parabolic shapes to create specific accep. A concentrator consisting of a compound parabola with foci at the apex of a prism is described. Generate compound parabolic concentrator with involute shaped. The concept of the compound parabolic concentrator cpc as a primary concentrator has received some attention in the field of building integrated pv, but only for low concentration 5x nontracking applications with few exceptions4,5. The concentration ratio up to 10 can be achieved in the nontracking mode easily. In my opinion using the equation driven sketch tool is what is over complicating the problem. The solar radiation fall on the compound parabolic concentrator is also calculated.
Historically, nonimaging optics that work as ideal concentrators have been discovered through such heuristic ideas as edge ray involutes, string method, simultaneous multiple surface, and tailored edge ray concentrator, without a. Currently, there are two available designs of parabolic concentrator. Design and evaluation of a compound parabolic concentrator. Moreover, thermal and electrical models are developed using matlab software environment to. Symmetric cpc with geometrical concentration ratio of 2. These concentrators do not have such strict requirements for the incidence angle as the parabolic troughs have, which makes.
Femtosecond laser micromachining of compound parabolic. Concentrator plays main role in efficient thermal absorber. Compound parabolic concentrator pv electrical model computational. A prototype was built and its thermal performance was determined. The compound parabolic concentrator cpc belonging to nonimaging optics is. An extruded compound parabolic concentrator see the following paragraphs was mounted at the entrance to the receiver cavity to provide secondary concentration. Pdf thermodynamics and the segmented compound parabolic. In this research study, we have compared between the two different concentrators with the flat absorber plate receiver of the compound parabolic concentrator heat pipe solar concentrator and ordinary heat pipe flat plate solar concentrator. We compare this design with the compound parabolic concentrator cpc, also called winstons cone 7. We compare this design with the compound parabolic concentrator. An interesting example of hybridized processes is combining pco with. Compound parabolic concentrators are critical components in solar energy collection, wireless communication, biomedical and defense research, or.
The compound parabolic concentrator accepts a greater amount of light and needs less accurate tracking. Compound parabolic collectors cpcs are nonimaging concentrators that ideally accept all rays within their acceptance half angle and concentrate by the maximum allowed for by the second law of thermodynamics. Their potential as collectors of solar energy was pointed out by winston 1974. C applications, concentrating type collectors are suitable. Renewable energy resources, solar energy, solar concentrator.
Let us finish with an example corresponding to an extended sourcetarget. Compound parabolic concentrator cpc is a nonimaging concentrator which is considered in this study for reducing the cost of electrical energy. The term nonimaging optics is concerned with applications where imaging formation is not important but where effective and efficient collection, concentration, transport and distribution of light energy is i. A parabolic trough is a type of solar thermal collector that is straight in one dimension and curved as a parabola in the other two, lined with a polished metal mirror. Modelling of compound parabolic concentrators for photovoltaic applications efficiency are not strictly required.
Six numbers of semicylindrical parabolic concentrators were interpolated on a receiver plate for direct conversion of solar energy to thermal energy by trapping the maximum incident rays into metallic tubes which were placed on. Pdf mathematical modeling and analysis of compound parabolic. The major advantages of 2d cpc are that, it can receive radiation arriving with large angular spread and yet concentrate it on to linear receivers of small transverse width. Tsai 2015 and adopted freeform surfaces as reflective. Su et al 19 made a comparison of a novel lenswalled compound parabolic concentrator lenswalled cpc with the common mirror and dielectric solid cpcs for yearly utilization. A threedimensional compound parabolic concentrator cpc is designed for hightemperature solar thermochemical applications driven by radiation from a multisource highflux solar simulator. A thermal and optical analysis of the performance of a refrigerant charged compound parabolic concentrator cpc for solar applications operating in nonboiling, boiling and superheated regimes is presented. The performance of the cpc working under these single and multiphase conditions is governed by the axial fractional channel lengths of the nonboiling and the superheating regions. The necessity for the optical systems, in fact, is to operate at an incident angle range for the impinging radiation at which its efficiency is the highest. Compound parabolic collector an overview sciencedirect. With acceptance angle options of 25, our cpcs are able to accommodate a variety of light sources and configurations. Design, optimization and characterization of the light of. How to design a compound parabolic concentrator matlab.
Design and test of nonevacuated solar collectors with. Design of axisymmetrical tailored concentrators for led light. Because ccpc is created by combining two 2d cpc, ccpc performs well in pv. Pdf mathematical modeling and analysis of compound. Practical development of compound parabolic concentrator compound parabolic concentrators cpc, concentrate radiation from the aperture to the receiver norton et al, 2011 and most of the incoming beam and diffuse radiation can be collected andor reflected onto the absorber surface kessentini and bouden, 20. Compound parabolic concentrators can accept incoming radiation over a relatively wide range of angles. How to design a compound parabolic concentrator by using equation driven curve.
The present research has presented mathematical modeling and simulation of solar. Pdf compound parabolic concentrator cpc has been gaining. Compound parabolic concentrators can accept incoming radiation over a relatively. Pdf densearray concentrator photovoltaic system using non. The crossed compound parabolic concentrator ccpc is one of the most efficient nonimaging solar concentrators used as a stationary solar concentrator or as a second stage solar concentrator. Oct 06, 2011 compound parabolic concentrators cpcs are concentrator lenses made from rotated parabolic shapes to create specific accep. Operating temperatures of the order of 150 c with a reasonable efficiency can be attained by means of a fixed cpc. Pdf sixparameter electrical model for photovoltaic cell. Compound parabolic concentrators cpcs are a class of concentrators that consist of rotated parabolic sections which have a concentration factor for planar receivers which is the thermodynamic limit. A significant amount of research and development has already been accomplished on nonimaging hollow reflective compound parabolic concentrators cpcs ref. A is the focal point of parabola cc and b is the focal point of the parabola dd the area dc is the entrance aperture and the flat absorber is ab. Compound parabolic concentrator cpc optiforms, inc. Optical performance and optimization of two stationary.
Design optimisation of compound parabolic concentrator. C and large amount of research efforts are already made. A computational study of a photovoltaic compound parabolic concentrator. Compound parabolic concentrator diagram electroformed compound parabolic concentrators are used to efficiently collect and concentrate light from a distant source. Threedimensional compound parabolic concentrator 3d cpc was found to be more efficient than 2d cpc because of higher concentration ratio. Sixparameter electrical model for photovoltaic cellmodule with compound parabolic concentrator article pdf available in solar energy 7 october 2016 with 239 reads how we measure reads. This paper presents a comparison between the fluid outlet temperature and efficiency of the system for two. Development of a compound parabolic solar concentrator to increase solar 163 a more sophisticated parabolic collector trough was designed, that avoided the need to track the sun altogether, by combining two parabolas together fig. The cavity redirects all energy entering between the receiver and the cavity structure onto the receiver, if the optical receiver is emplaced a distance from the cavity not greater than 0. Comparison of solar concentrators ari rabl solar energy group, argonne national laboratory, argonne, il 60439, u. This theorem give a suff icient condition to have ete ndue limited collimation between a. Design equations for the concentrator are derived, and it is shown that the concentrator is ideal and achieves the maximum theoretical concentration nsin. Sixparameter electrical model for photovoltaic cellmodule.
This is also will lead to the decreases of concentration ratio but it will be negligible. Nov 11, 2016 how to design a compound parabolic concentrator. One is by rotating the two dimensional design along the xaxis to produce a parabolic dish, and the other way is by having a parabolic trough. Building integrated compound parabolic photovoltaic concentrator.
Cpc collectors are more productive as compared to common atplate. It is widely used as a reflecting solar concentrator. A distinct property that it has is that it can focus all the parallel rays from the sun to a single focus point, f as shown in figure 2. In section 3 we show how, using a professional raytracing simulation, we can optimize the geometrical shape of the light concentrator using cubic b ezier curves. The second part is a compound parabolic concentrator cpc above the nanoled to narrow the outgoing light angular distribution so most of the light would be accepted by an imaging system. Compound parabolic collectors cpcs are nonimaging concentrators. In this study two different compound parabolic collectors with tubular receivers are analyzed and optimized for yearly operation in athens. Design of axisymmetrical tailored concentrators for led.
The metal reflector of high reflectivity is generally used. High collection nonimaging optics covers the many developments and the wider range of applications of nonimaging optics. Compound parabolic collector an overview sciencedirect topics. The linear compound parabolic concentrator cpc collector was designed with a half angle. Pdf methanol reforming is a wellknown method of producing hydrogen for hydrogenbased fuel cells. In this study, a design model for a two dimension compound parabolic solar thermal concentrator cpc is theoretically analyzed. Lc slab in the form of a compound parabolic concentrator enables the output intensity to be increased by a factor. Optimal design of compound parabolic concentrator solar. In this monograph, the basic practical applications of the techniques of nonimaging optics to solar energy collection and concentration are developed and explained. Collimates a light source or concentrates light from distant sources. Performance of compound parabolic concentrators with polygonal apertures article pdf available.552 976 1027 1470 417 497 489 721 825 479 1331 977 1058 83 1119 821 822 664 266 811 417 1257 1151 428 1248 511 1118 561 116 1182 646 823 1065 1118 520