Although some people currently boil water, all microbes that cause disease in humans do not survive at. For solar tracking applications, cpcs offer the possibility of high solar concentration ratios, in. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of cpc, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic. Compound parabolic concentrators cpcs are designed to efficiently collect and concentrate distant light sources, with some acceptance angle. A manual solar tracking was facilitated along the two axes up to. Moreover, thermal and electrical models are developed using matlab software environment to. Heat removal factor, js, for solar collectors under any opera tion mode is. Not least of these benefits is the fact that solar energy is an environmentally sustainable alternative. Harnessing the freely available source of energy from the sun offers a number of additional benefits.
Performance evaluation of photovoltaic string with compound. Construction and performance analysis of a three dimensional. Experimental study on a compound parabolic concentrator tubular solar still tied with pyramid solar still t. Such a combination approaches the performance of an. The compound parabolic concentrator accepts a greater amount of light and needs less accurate tracking. By using multiple internal reflections, any radiation entering the aperture within the collector acceptance angle finds its way to the absorber surface located at the bottom of the collector. Building integrated compound parabolic photovoltaic. Nonimaging optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such, depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Concentrator plays main role in efficient thermal absorber.
External compound parabolic concentrator, xcpc, medium temperature. The top of each parabolic section is perpendicular to the base on the x axis. Find compound parabolic concentrator related suppliers, manufacturers, products and specifications on globalspec a trusted source of compound parabolic concentrator information. Their potential as collectors of solar energy was pointed out by winston 1974.
Electroformed components precision metal components electroforming is a costeffective additive manufacturing am process that accurately replicates geometric and organic surfaces using copper andor nickel in an electrodeposition process. A fourwing compound parabolic concentrator cpc was designed as a modification of the regular nonimaging cpc concentrator that has a widespread use as solar collector. The concept of the compound parabolic concentrator cpc as a primary concentrator has received some attention in the field of building integrated pv, but only for low concentration 5x nontracking applications with few exceptions4,5. Because ccpc is created by combining two 2d cpc, ccpc performs well in pv. Historically, nonimaging optics that work as ideal concentrators have been discovered through such heuristic ideas as edge ray involutes, string method, simultaneous multiple surface, and tailored edge ray concentrator, without a. Solar concentrator, compound parabolic concentrator, sanitization, sterilization, cpc, nonimaging concentrators, parabolic concentrators, waste drying 1. Secondary concentration compensated for any slight inaccuracies in mirror facet mounting that would lead to broadening or inaccurate focus of the beam at the focal line. Doublepass photovoltaicthermal solar air collector with compound parabolic concentrator and fins.
Compound parabolic concentrators are critical components in solar energy collection, wireless communication, biomedical and defense research, or for any. This book is organized into 11 chapters that emphasize the application of nonimaging optics to concentrators for solar energy. Thermodynamics and the segmented compound parabolic concentrator journal of photonics for energy 0280026 apr jun 2017 vol. Compound parabolic concentrators cpcs are concentrator lenses made from rotated parabolic shapes to create specific accep. Solar concentrators rensselaer polytechnic institute. In the drawing opposite there are two parabolic mirrors cc red and dd blue.
Nonimaging optics in solar energy synthesis lectures on. Two small pv modules with 6 silicon solar cells, and two parallel strings with three solar cells in series were constructed with and without acpc. An extruded compound parabolic concentrator see the following paragraphs was mounted at the entrance to the receiver cavity to provide secondary concentration. Design and evaluation of a compound parabolic concentrator. The sunlight which enters the mirror parallel to its plane of symmetry is focused along the focal line, where objects are positioned that are intended to be heated. A prototype was built and its thermal performance was determined. Us4387961a compound parabolic concentrator with cavity. Parabolic solar concentrators with evacuated tube as receivers. This reflector configuration is a compound parabolic concentrator cpc. Pdf optical design of two dimension compound parabolic.
This is also will lead to the decreases of concentration ratio but it will be negligible. The compound parabolic concentrator cpc belonging to nonimaging optics is. Nonimaging optical gain in luminescent concentration. Design optimisation of compound parabolic concentrator cpc. The major advantages of 2d cpc are that, it can receive radiation arriving with large angular spread and yet concentrate it on to linear receivers of small transverse width. C applications, concentrating type collectors are suitable. The necessity of moving the concentrator to accommodate the changing solar orientation can be reduced by using a trough with two sections of a. Compound parabolic concentrators can accept incoming radiation over a relatively wide range of angles. In 1974 when the suitability of the compound parabolic concentrator cpc. Compound parabolic collector an overview sciencedirect. The linear compound parabolic concentrator cpc collector was designed with a half angle. Densearray concentrator photovoltaic system using nonimaging dish concentrator and crossed compound parabolic concentrator conference paper pdf available november 2014 with 280 reads. A is the focal point of parabola cc and b is the focal point of the parabola dd the area dc is the entrance aperture and the flat absorber is ab. The present research has presented mathematical modeling and simulation of solar.
The metal reflector of high reflectivity is generally used. The basic concept of the compound parabolic concentrator is shown in fig. Question asked by mazin shidhani on mar 21, 2017 latest reply on jul 7. Introduction the energy from the sun is vast, while being commonly available at any point of use. Compound parabolic concentrators can accept incoming radiation over a relatively. Tsai 2015 and adopted freeform surfaces as reflective. Compound parabolic concentrator cpc is a nonimaging concentrator which is considered in this study for reducing the cost of electrical energy. A threedimensional compound parabolic concentrator cpc is designed for hightemperature solar thermochemical applications driven by radiation from a multisource highflux solar simulator. Pdf doublepass photovoltaicthermal solar air collector. Compound parabolic collectors cpcs are nonimaging concentrators that ideally accept all rays within their acceptance half angle and concentrate by the maximum allowed for by the second law of thermodynamics. We compare this design with the compound parabolic concentrator. Pdf performance of compound parabolic concentrators with.
Performance of compound parabolic concentrators with polygonal apertures article pdf available. Su et al 19 made a comparison of a novel lenswalled compound parabolic concentrator lenswalled cpc with the common mirror and dielectric solid cpcs for yearly utilization. Compound parabolic concentrators are critical components in solar energy collection, wireless communication, biomedical and defense research, or for any applications requiring condensing of a divergent light source. Isuzu glass has announced that it has successfully produced cpcs using a glass mold.
Six numbers of semicylindrical parabolic concentrators were interpolated on a receiver plate for direct conversion of solar energy to thermal energy by trapping the maximum incident rays into metallic tubes which were placed on. C and large amount of research efforts are already made. Sixparameter electrical model for photovoltaic cellmodule. Design, optimization and characterization of the light of the.
Compound parabolic collectors cpcs are nonimaging concentrators. Pdf compound parabolic concentrator cpc has been gaining. Collimates a light source or concentrates light from distant sources. Renewable energy, solar heat collector, ray tracing, compound parabolic concentrator 1. A distinct property that it has is that it can focus all the parallel rays from the sun to a single focus point, f as shown in figure 2. A concentrator consisting of a compound parabola with foci at the apex of a prism is described.
In this study, a design model for a two dimension compound parabolic solar thermal concentrator cpc is theoretically analyzed. Nov 11, 2016 how to design a compound parabolic concentrator. Compound parabolic collector an overview sciencedirect topics. Cpc consist of two parabolic reflectors at the two ends left and right of the absorber plate and hence it is known as compound parabolic concentrator. They have the capability of reflecting to the absorber all of the incident radiation within wide limits. A computational study of a photovoltaic compound parabolic concentrator.
Let us finish with an example corresponding to an extended sourcetarget. Threedimensional compound parabolic concentrator 3d cpc was found to be more efficient than 2d cpc because of higher concentration ratio. Truncation equations are given, and advantages of this. The collector concept was originated by winston in 1978. In this paper, the flux distribution of untruncated and truncated 2d hollow. In recent years, cpcbased solar collectors are commonly regarded. Modelling of compound parabolic concentrators for photovoltaic applications efficiency are not strictly required. Compound parabolic concentrator for pentagon shape absorber. Renewable energy resources, solar energy, solar concentrator.
Sixparameter electrical model for photovoltaic cellmodule with compound parabolic concentrator article pdf available in solar energy 7 october 2016 with 239 reads how we measure reads. Even if solid concentrators can achieve larger compression factors than hollow ones 3, 4, 5, the former start to su er from limited transmissiv. In section 3 we show how, using a professional raytracing simulation, we can optimize the geometrical shape of the light concentrator using cubic b ezier curves. We propose some new concentrators, including the use of compound parabolic concentrators as second stage concentrators for conventional parabolic or fresnel mirrors. Experimental study on a compound parabolic concentrator. A concentrator photovoltaic system based on a combination. The crossed compound parabolic concentrator ccpc is one of the most efficient nonimaging solar concentrators used as a stationary solar concentrator or as a second stage solar concentrator. With acceptance angle options of 25, our cpcs are able to accommodate a variety of light sources and configurations. If analytical expression between r and x is found to be cumbersome, an analogue technique of directly measuring r by means of a string or by other method may be adopted after drawing desired parabola or compound curve to full scale on the floor or wooden board. Generate compound parabolic concentrator with involute shaped. These topics are followed by a description of the socalled compound parabolic concentrator. Performance and cost benefits associated with nonimaging nrel. Lc slab in the form of a compound parabolic concentrator enables the output intensity to be increased by a factor.
Femtosecond laser micromachining of compound parabolic. A compound parabolic concentrator with a vshaped cavity is provided in which an optical receiver is emplaced. Building integrated compound parabolic photovoltaic concentrator. Ray tracing for optimization of compound parabolic. The clear day solar beam radiation and diffuse radiation at the location of the solar collector are estimated. For a 3dimensional nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator, the maximum concentration possible in air or in vacuum equal to the ratio of input and output aperture areas, is. Pdf methanol reforming is a wellknown method of producing hydrogen for hydrogenbased fuel cells.
The idea of concentrating solar thermal energy is an area that has received significant attention in recent years. A compound parabolic concentrator cpc for solar energy applications is presented in this work. Compound parabolic concentrator diagram electroformed compound parabolic concentrators are used to efficiently collect and concentrate light from a distant source. Abstracta compound parabolic concentrator cpc is a well known nonimaging concentrator that will concentrate the solar radiation onto receiver pv cell. Comparison of solar concentrators ari rabl solar energy group, argonne national laboratory, argonne, il 60439, u. A lot of work has been done in the field of compound parabolic concentrator by rabl and kreith. Optimal design of compound parabolic concentrator solar. Combining the correction factors a3 and a4 we obtain the. High collection nonimaging optics covers the many developments and the wider range of applications of nonimaging optics. Pdf mathematical modeling and analysis of compound parabolic. The basic geometrical parameters of the cpc including the acceptance angle and the entry aperture radius are determined using optical simulations. A thermaloptical analysis of a compound parabolic concentrator for.
Most of the parabolic concentrator employs only a truncated portion of the parabola. Pdf sixparameter electrical model for photovoltaic cell. Pdf densearray concentrator photovoltaic system using non. The performance of the cpc working under these single and multiphase conditions is governed by the axial fractional channel lengths of the nonboiling and the superheating regions. Symmetric cpc with geometrical concentration ratio of 2. From its inception nearly 30 years ago, the optical subdiscipline now referred to as nonimaging optics, has experienced dramatic growth. Compound parabolic concentrators cpcs are a class of concentrators that consist of rotated parabolic sections which have a concentration factor for planar receivers which is the thermodynamic limit. These concentrators do not have such strict requirements for the incidence angle as the parabolic troughs have, which makes. Design equations for the concentrator are derived, and it is shown that the concentrator is ideal and achieves the maximum theoretical concentration nsin.
Oct 06, 2011 compound parabolic concentrators cpcs are concentrator lenses made from rotated parabolic shapes to create specific accep. The nonimaging concentrator uses a compound parabolic concentrator cpc reflector to capture the incident sun rays. Pdf mathematical modeling and analysis of compound. The necessity for the optical systems, in fact, is to operate at an incident angle range for the impinging radiation at which its efficiency is the highest. Two configurations are numerically studied namely one with simple typical flat pv string and the other pv string with cpc. The diagram is linked to a pdf of these diagrams with t ranging from 10 to 50. Pdf experimental investigation of the comparison of. In this study two different compound parabolic collectors with tubular receivers are analyzed and optimized for yearly operation in athens. Compound parabolic concentrator cpc optiforms, inc. The second part is a compound parabolic concentrator cpc above the nanoled to narrow the outgoing light angular distribution so most of the light would be accepted by an imaging system. It is widely used as a reflecting solar concentrator. Optical performance and optimization of two stationary. Operating temperatures of the order of 150 c with a reasonable efficiency can be attained by means of a fixed cpc.
A computational study of a photovoltaic compound parabolic. A fourwing compound parabolic concentrator cpc design. A parabolic trough is a type of solar thermal collector that is straight in one dimension and curved as a parabola in the other two, lined with a polished metal mirror. The concentration ratio up to 10 can be achieved in the nontracking mode easily. Practical development of compound parabolic concentrator compound parabolic concentrators cpc, concentrate radiation from the aperture to the receiver norton et al, 2011 and most of the incoming beam and diffuse radiation can be collected andor reflected onto the absorber surface kessentini and bouden, 20. One is by rotating the two dimensional design along the xaxis to produce a parabolic dish, and the other way is by having a parabolic trough.
A 3d cpc was fabricated with a half acceptance angle of 4 for a spherical absorber radius 100 mm. Compound parabolic concentrator cpc, an ideal solar concentrator designed based on principles of edgeray and identical optical length, shares the advantages of being simple in structure and no need for a continuous suntracking system. A compound parabolic concentrator cpc is a reflective, nonimaging optical device which employs specifically configured parabolic properties to take advantage of the maximum concentration of light energy. The entire collector is formed by combining three xcpcs on either side of. Development of a compound parabolic solar concentrator to increase solar 163 a more sophisticated parabolic collector trough was designed, that avoided the need to track the sun altogether, by combining two parabolas together fig. A significant amount of research and development has already been accomplished on nonimaging hollow reflective compound parabolic concentrators cpcs ref.
This theorem give a suff icient condition to have ete ndue limited collimation between a. Mech ijmperd thermal analysis of compound parabolic. Because ccpc is created by combining two 2d cpc, ccpc performs. The multiobjective optimum design of stationary compound parabolic concentrator cpc solar collectors is considered. The formalism for designing a wide variety of concentrator types, such as the compound parabolic concentrator and its many embodiments and variations, is presented. Currently, there are two available designs of parabolic concentrator. Flat plate collectors have been widely used for applications that demand temperature below 90. This paper presents a comparison between the fluid outlet temperature and efficiency of the system for two. In my opinion using the equation driven sketch tool is what is over complicating the problem. In this research study, we have compared between the two different concentrators with the flat absorber plate receiver of the compound parabolic concentrator heat pipe solar concentrator and ordinary heat pipe flat plate solar concentrator. Design, optimization and characterization of the light of. Compound parabolic concentrators cpcs edmund optics.
Design and test of nonevacuated solar collectors with. Introduction compound parabolic concentrators cpcs are advanced technological solutions developed for making. Compound parabolic concentrator pv electrical model computational. Many people in less developed countries drink water with microbial contamination, which leads to the annual death of 5 million children. The solar radiation fall on the compound parabolic concentrator is also calculated. Design of axisymmetrical tailored concentrators for led light. The compound parabolic concentrator cpc is a versatile solar collector due to the amount of applications and geometries that can be used 2, it is an excellent candidate for thermal energy supply of industrial processes 3 particularly for low and medium temperature ranges 4. Design of a parabolic trough solar collector using a. Development of a compound parabolic solar concentrator to. The u and v axes are the coordinate system of the rightside parabola. This paper covers an experimental study on a compound parabolic concentrator tubular so. How to design a compound parabolic concentrator matlab. This theorem give a suff icient condition to have ete ndue limited collimation between a source and a target with the same etendue. Design optimisation of compound parabolic concentrator.
An interesting example of hybridized processes is combining pco with. Design and fabrication of a dielectric total internal. The term nonimaging optics is concerned with applications where imaging formation is not important but where effective and efficient collection, concentration, transport and distribution of light energy is i. Pdf compound parabolic concentrators for solar water. The acceptance angle of the reflector determines the amount of sunlight that will enter and get reflected to the receiver placed at its focus. In this monograph, the basic practical applications of the techniques of nonimaging optics to solar energy collection and concentration are developed and explained. The cavity redirects all energy entering between the receiver and the cavity structure onto the receiver, if the optical receiver is emplaced a distance from the cavity not greater than 0. How to design a compound parabolic concentrator by using equation driven curve. Sixparameter electrical model for photovoltaic cell. However, a lumped electrical model of a pv cellmodule with cpc for. We compare this design with the compound parabolic concentrator cpc, also called winstons cone 7. Design of a compound parabolic concentrator for a multi. Pdf analysis of a new compound parabolic concentratorbased. Cpc collectors are more productive as compared to common atplate.725 985 167 855 253 674 287 88 489 531 1386 787 284 218 359 481 631 861 305 612 842 1096 349 691 137 1237 174 748 387 1044 1205 55